It was discovered around 800 A.D. The origin can be traced back to the civilizations of the Aztecs and Mayans who inhabitedÂ Central America in what is now south Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras. At that time, there were trees called Sapodilla growing in the area and the people had a habit of chewing a substance, extracted from the tree, which was called chicle and is the origin of chewing gum today.
The Mayan's prosperity reached its peak around 800 A.D and then started to decline. In the 16th century (The first rifles "Teppo" were brought to Tanegashima, Japan.) When the Spanish conquered the area, almost all of the Mayans had disappeared. However, their habit of chewing chicle (human's "chewing instinct") continued after the Spanish invaded and spread among the Spanish immigrants.
Around 1860 A.D.(late Edo period) General Santa Anna who gained prominence in the war between America and Mexico came up with the plan to produce rubber made from chicle which was tried without success. However, he was amazed by the wonderful texture, and the benefit of whitening teeth, and started selling candy-like substances made from unsweetened chicle. After his troops supported him he added sugar to the substances and sold them in America where they got especially popular. Some were flavoured with mint as well as cinnamon and widely accepted all over the world.
It was in Taisho 5 (1916) when chewing gum was imported for the first time into Japan and around Showa 3 (1928) companies such as Masaki and Shinkouseika started selling their product domestically.Â However, at the time it wasn't sold successfully as it wasn't compatible with the Japanese diet. During World War II, chewing gum was included in the food rations of American soldiers. In Showa 20 (1945), at the end of the war, American chewing gum was rapidly accepted by the Japanese as a new fashion and a lot of people adopted it along with the westernization of their lifestyle. Manufacturing process of chewing gum began.
|Sap is collected||Sap is collected from trees that belong to 'Akatetsu' (Sapotaceae) 'Kyoutikutou' (Apocynaceae) 'Kuwa' (Moraceae) and 'Toudaigusa' (Euphorbiaceae) in systemic botany. They grow in Central and South America and south-east Asia and the common sap is chicle.To collect it, carve a v-shape in the trunk at from the bottom to the top and place a container above 1 meter from ground level..This reddish substance when boiled is the plant sap which is the base of chewing gum.|
|Vinyl acetate||Vinyl acetate is a substance that is transparent. Undissolved it is also tasteless and odourless. It was invented in Germany in 1912.When used in chewing gum it must pass the high standards of the Food Safety Authority.This plant sap is the base of chewing gum and makes it softer and gives it excellent texture. It has passed several recognized safety tests.|
|Ester gum||Ester gum It is used for improving the texture. It has passed several recognized safety tests.|
|Polyisobutylen||Polyisobutylen is used for adding elasticity. It has passed several recognized safety tests.|
|Calcium carbonate||Calcium carbonate is used to prevent the chewing gum becoming too soft and breaking down.|
|Sweeteners||Sweeteners: Cane sugar, glucose, and starch syrup are used.These days Maltitol, Xylitol are also used.|
|Softener makes||Softener makes the entire chewing gum soft and gives it a nice texture.Softener is made of water and glycerin and only one that has passed several tests can be used.|
|Flavour||Natural plant essential oil is the core of the flavour. The most popular mint flavours are peppermint (Western mint, Japanese mint) and spar mint(Dutch mint) and each of their plant oils are extracted by steam distillation.Citrus flavour such as lemon and orange are also extracted by steam distillation from fruits.|
|Peppermint||You must think of the taste of chewing gum when you hear "Peppermint". You feel like your mind is refreshed even by only smelling peppermint. This effect has been known for long time ago and is written in The Herb Book of the 16th century. "The smell makes human beings happy". Ever since peppermint flavoured chewing gum was introduced in 1880, it became the primary taste of chewing gum. Even today it is the most popular flavour of chewing gum.|
It is the day to re-think the importance of chewing and was established by the Japan Chewing Gum Association in June, Heisei 6 (1996). We hope many people will think about the importance of chewing, health, and manners in modern times.
Because of chewing gum's distinct features, it can be combined with a lot of different ingredients and made into various shapes. On top of that, if we count each different flavour and scent the number of products is unlimited.
Apart from these, there are products mixed with chewing gum such as jam, candy, or powder.
Although mint and fruit are the typical taste of chewing gum, there are also spice, coffee and coca cola flavoured chewing gum.
|Mint flavour||peppermint and spearmint|
|Fruit flavour||Orange, lemon, apple, melon, cherry, plum, grape, raspberry, strawberry.|
|Spice flavour||cinnamon, licorice etc..|
|Others||coffee, coca cola, green tea, black tea, wine.|
There is two core types of sweeteners. One called "Sugar type" which made with cane sugar or glucose sugar the other called "Sugar free type" which is made with maltitol or xylitol.
habit of chewing well
secretion of saliva and improved digestion.
anti-aging by secretion hormones.
Activate brain by stimulation.
Improve the efficiency of studying and tasks.
Strengthening roots of teeth
Development of jaw
The research of elementary school students in Kanagawa prefecture revealed that the function of chewing has been dramatically weakened because they tended to eat softer food more often. For the children who had lost the habit of chewing a wide range of food, we strongly suggested the need of prompt improvement to their diet.
Divide students into three groups.
3 out of 4 elementary school students Non-biting, non-biting children
The cause of this is that they tend to wash down food with milk.
A warning to the jaws of modern human beings. The diet that promotes the importance of chewing has been forgotten. The eating experiment from when Princess Himiko lived until modern times proves that "Chewing" keeps the oral cavity clean and improves the metabolism of teeth and jaw function and also our entire well being.
|Production number (year on year)||Production price (year on year)||retail price (year on year)|
|A.D.1989||36000 (107.5)||850 (114.9)||1210 (114.2)|
|A.D.1990||38000 (105.6)||960 (112.9)||1360 (112.4)|
|A.D.1991||43000 (113.2)||1100 (114.6)||1560 (114.7)|
|A.D.1992||45000 (104.7)||1155 (105.0)||1640 (105.1)|
|A.D.1993||46000 (102.2)||1200 (103.9)||1700 (103.7)|
|A.D.1993||46000 (102.2)||1200 (103.9)||1700 (103.7)|
|A.D.1994||45300 (98.5)||1169 (97.4)||1670 (98.2)|
|A.D.1995||45500 (100.4)||1192 (102.0)||1703 (102.0)|
|A.D.1996||44200 (97.1)||1158 (97.1)||1654(97.1)|
|A.D.1997||45600 (103.2)||1205 (104.1)||1721 (104.1)|
|A.D.1998||45600 (100.0)||1213 (100. 7)||1733 (100.7)|
|A.D.1999||44700 (98.0)||1190 (98.1)||1700 (98.1)|
|A.D.2000||43600 (97.5)||1161 (97.6)||1660 (97.6)|
|A.D.2001||43600 (100.0)||1173 (101.0)||1676 (101.0)|
|A.D.2002||44000 (100.9)||1207 (102.9)||1724 (102.9)|
|A.D.2003||45800 (104.1)||1310 (108.5)||1871 (108.5)|
|A.D.2004||46100 (100.7)||1317 (100.5)||1881 (100.5)|
|A.D.2005||44300 (96.1)||1278 (97.0)||1826 (97.1)|
|A.D.2006||42600 (96.2)||1172 (97.3)||1723 (94.4)|
|A.D.2007||41240 (96.8)||1140 (97.3)||1677 (97.3)|
|A.D.2008||39140 (94.9)||1099 (96.4)||1616 (96.4)|
|A.D.2009||38010 (97.1)||1070 (97.4)||1580 (97.8)|
|A.D.2010||37590 (98.9)||1050 (98.1)||1540 (97.5)|
|A.D.2011||35870 (95.4)||982 (93.5)||1435 (93.2)|
|A.D.2012||33130 (92.4)||910 (92.7)||1325 (92.3)|
|A.D.2013||30220 (91.2)||825 (90.7)||1220 (92.1)|
|A.D.2014||29020 (96.0)||778 (94.3)||1150 (94.3)|
|A.D.2015||27780 (95. 7)||751 (96.5)||1113 (96.8)|
|A.D.2016||26670 (96.0)||715 (95.2)||1058 (95.1)|
|A.D.2017||25200 (94.5)||680 (95.1)||1005 (95.0)|
|A.D.2018||24350 (96.6)||655 (96.3)||970 (96.5)|